An overview of zirconia ceramics: Basic properties and clinical applications

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Zirconia (ZrO2) can be a ceramic material with sufficient mechanical properties for manufacturing of healthcare devices. Zirconia stabilized with Y2O3 has the most effective properties for these applications. When a pressure happens on a ZrO2 surface, a crystalline modification opposes the propagation of cracks. Compression resistance of ZrO2 is about 2000 MPa. Orthopedic study led to this material getting proposed for the manufacture of hip head prostheses. Before this, zirconia biocompatibility had been studied in vivo; no adverse responses have been reported following the insertion of ZrO2 samples into bone or muscle. In vitro experimentation showed absence of mutations and very good viability of cells cultured on this material. Zirconia cores for fixed partial dentures (FPD) on anterior and posterior teeth and on implants are now out there. Clinical evaluation of abutments and periodontal tissue have to be performed before their use. Zirconia opacity is extremely helpful in adverse clinical conditions, as an example, for masking of dischromic abutment teeth. Radiopacity can aid evaluation for the duration of radiographic controls. Zirconia frameworks are realized by using computer-aided design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. Cementation of Zr-ceramic restorations is usually performed with adhesive luting. Mechanical properties of zirconium oxide FPDs have proved superior to those of other metal-free restorations. Clinical evaluations, which happen to be ongoing for 3 years, indicate a fantastic success price for zirconia FPDs. Zirconia implant abutments may also be employed to improve the aesthetic outcome of implant-supported rehabilitations. Newly proposed zirconia implants seem to have superior biological and mechanical properties; further studies are required to validate their application.
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